Poland is one of the largest countries in Central and Eastern Europe, the sixth member state of the European Union in terms of the number of inhabitants and a country that is part of NATO. In 2017 Poland was elected for the sixth time as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for two-year terms (2018 – 2019). Its favourable geographical location, including the location in the centre of Europe and access to the Baltic Sea, and the potential resulting from the development of Polish inland navigation create advantageous conditions for the development of the country's maritime economy, and also make Poland play a key role as a transit country between Asia and Europe as well as North Europe and Southeast Europe.


966 - baptism of Poland
1025 - establishment of the Kingdom of Poland
1569 - Poland concludes an agreement with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, signing the 'Lublin Union'. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries on the map of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, is established.
1596 - transfer of the capital from Krakow to Warsaw
1772, 1793, 1795 - the partitions of Poland
1791 - adoption of the Constitution of 3 May 1791. The Polish constitution was adopted as the first in Europe and the second in the world after the constitution of the United States of America.
1918 - regaining independence after 123 years
1939 - 1945 - World War II. Attack of the Third Reich and the USSR on Poland
1944 - the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising years 1945 - 1989 - communist period in Poland
1981 - introduction of martial law
1989 - the collapse of the communist government
1999 - Poland becomes a NATO member state
2004 - Poland joins the European Union



Poland is the sixth largest economy in the European Union and the 25th largest economy in the world. It is widely recognised as a business-friendly state. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Poland has been pursuing a policy of economic liberalisation.

During the economic crisis of 2008-2009, Poland was the only EU country that did not fall into a recession. In 2014-2017, the country's economic growth continued, with real GDP exceeding 3%. The rate of economic growth places Poland among the fastest developing countries in Europe.

GDP per capita in 2017 was USD 29,300. The dominant branches of the Polish economy are the services sector, which is responsible for generating 64.3% of GDP, the industry sector (40.2%), and the agriculture sector (2.4%) (2017 data).